Tzu was very interested in how we should live ad different ways that a good society is governed. Eastern religions have not been as concerned by questions relating to the nature of a single God as the universe's sole creator and ruler. Definition: 1992. [citation needed], Hume's position is similar to Indian Buddhists’ theories and debates about the self, which generally considers a bundle theory to describe the mind phenomena grouped in aggregates (skandhas), such as sense-perceptions, intellective discrimination (saṃjñā), emotions and volition. Therefore, this makes it hard to easily try and convince someone out of his or her faith (Smith, 2008). The case is the same for the seers of Upanishads, who mai… However, both philosophies have the goal of finding out the meaning and purpose in the life and path of an individual The concept of self in Eastern philosophy In Eastern philosophy, the most well-known conceptions of the self are represented by the views of Confucianism, Taoism, … This "sense of doership" or sense of individual existence is that part which believes it is the human being, and believes it must fight for itself in the world, is ultimately unaware and unconscious of its own true nature. After his interest increased, Lemkin’s life changed and he petitioned for an intercontinental law that he hoped it to prevent any type of genocide or mass murder against humanity. He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. This paper aims to examine the ideas of one eastern and one western philosopher – Confucius and Socrates respectively and compare the two for similarities and differences. East Asian Philosophy includes Confucianism, which is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia[1], Taoism which refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions that have influenced Eastern Asia[2], Shinto which is the indigenous religion of Japan[3], Legalism which was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period[4], and Maoism, which is officially known as Mao Zedong... ...PHILOSOPHY Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. Life is round, and the recurrence with everything around it is important. The Buddha in particular attacked all attempts to conceive of a fixed self, while stating that holding the view "I have no self" is also mistaken. His virtue of ethics was based on a simple rule – do not what you do not wish to be done to yourself. It is very detrimental to note that the Buddhist and Upanisadic term for the self is called “Atman” and its opposite is called “Anatman”. --The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods. November 03, 2014 Quote: “All wrong-doing arises because of mind. This papers intent is not to prove that eastern philosophy should be viewed through the lens Schaeffer, Kurtis R.; Kapstein, Matthew T.; Tuttle, Gray (2013-03-26). Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning. By Brian Yan 10C Conclusion Personally I like Eastern Philosophy more because of its different approach on viewing certain ideas and how you need both sides of an idea in the answer. 05/25/2011 I like this quote because a person does have a choice to change their selfish ways, by understanding how it affects people, and how ignorance and selfishness can be locked away permanently through cleansing of the mind. Eastern philosophy places focus on the individual or the self and the individual’s role in society. The first quotation that I would like to discuss is Buddhism: Siddhartha Gautama. Decision Making and Philosophy: Philosophy and the Self Each of these branches plays a role with culture to develop thoughts in human beings by wondering, a dynamic process, the truth, and wisdom. What we think of as our self, the "me" that inhabits our body, is just an ephemeral experience. Most people are stubborn about what they believe in because it is all they have known their entire lives and based their entire being on. In a Platonic tradition, concepts were seen to entail universals, applying always and for ever. [citation needed], To another person, the self of one individual is exhibited in the conduct and discourse of that individual. [19], It is plain, that in the course of our thinking, and in the constant revolution of our ideas, our imagination runs easily from one idea to any other that resembles it, and that this quality alone is to the fancy a sufficient bond and association. The main principle of the Eastern philosophy is unity. This is a state, or a potential for actual, or 'second', activity. Unlike Plato and the religious traditions, Aristotle did n… Eleanor Roosevelt created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that became the most important document of all other policies and treaties. According to Western philosophy, the self does exist, Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality, such as existence, time, the relationship between mind and body, objects and their properties, wholes and their parts, events, processes, and causation. It is to a certain level irrational to imagine that disputing that would... ...Eastern Philosophy According to Eastern philosophy, the self as an essence does not exist and this is d ue to our ignorance of the true nature of the world. Philosophy Most Eastern theist traditions (e.g., Hinduism) assert that the appearance of self (e.g., Atman) is an emanation of Divine Will and that the goal of philosophy and spiritual practice is for the individual to re-unite with the divine absolute, transcending the illusion of self into “God-Realization”. [1] A third person definition does not refer to specific mental qualia but instead strives for objectivity and operationalism. Suffering is in part with Karma which means “action” or “deed”, karma reflects in the later life through the actions or deeds done right now. His mother being why he becomes a great asset to our history because he created the word “genocide” as well as the first Human Rights Treaty. Lao Tzu- “To know that you do not know is the best. Buddhism • The doctrine of anatman (Sanskrit; anatta in Pali) is the core teaching of Buddhism. Aesthetics deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception, and matters of taste and sentiment. His father was a farmer and his mother a highly intellectual woman who was a painter, linguist, and philosophy student with a large collection of books on literature and history. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features. More precisely, the soul is the "first activity" of a living body. The Self in Ancient Philosophy 203 The distinction between Western and Eastern is of course somewhat arbitrary and artificial, and in some respects even misleading.For example, Indian and Chinese philosophies are at least as distinct from each other as they are from Western Philosophy. Heraclitus), in early Western philosophy a static view of reality was taken, with substance as the carrier of properties and the basis for identity of the self. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Jason Chang In this paper I will explain all the notions and ideas surrounding the idea of “the self” and “no self” that we have covered in Indian Philosophy including the ancient story of how Buddhism came to be and how the development of theories lead to the creation of Atman and Anatman, then I will attempt to critically discuss that idea... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes. For instance, if a knife had a soul, the act of cutting would be that soul, because 'cutting' is the essence of what it is to be a knife. Many postmodern philosophers believe the only variant of Eastern and Western philosophy is that of Geographic’s however some scholars will disagree that it is not geographical but of natural language and investigated thinking. For us to avoid being fooled by those learned person, it removes or takes away doubts, it turns life to be simple and flexible... ... The rationalist theory, which Immanuel Kant has inspired, also claims that our ability to achieve self-knowledge through rational reflection is partly derived from the fact that we view ourselves as rational agents. "The axe has an edge for cutting" was, for Aristotle, analogous to "humans have bodies for rational activity," and the potential for rational activity thus constituted the essence of a human soul. He believed if the emperor lead his subjects by leading an exemplary life, his subjects would follow and the state would be harmonious and prosper. [9], Aristotle, following Plato, defined the psyche as the core essence of a living being, and while claiming that it did not exist apart from the body,[10] he considered its so-called "intellect" part to be immortal and perpetual,[11][12] in contrast to its organism-dependent vegetative/nutritive and perceptual functions. ophy of language, history of philosophy (modern and ancient, eastern and western), aesthetics and ethics. Were form self, then this form would not lead to affliction, and one could have it of form: 'Let my form be thus, let my form be not thus.' Name [15] Aristotle used his concept of the soul in many of his works; his main work on the subject is De Anima (On the Soul).[16][14]. Though each line is concerned with finding the right path to follow, the methodology and teachings of the philosophers from either line of thinking has been distinct and different. Date However, as we grow up, that belief may change in one way or the other based on the interactions we have with the people around us. Most people often find it hard to reach an agreement when it comes to matters of faith. Knowing the self is enlightenment. [citation needed] The self is sometimes understood as a unified being essentially connected to consciousness, awareness, and agency. Through this statement, people could contemplate the impact of their... ...Kelly Carter The problem of one in many is also remembered by Aristotle, nonetheless: If then the soul is of its very nature divisible, what holds it together? More recently philosophical schools are teaching both religious and philosophical concepts. There is no division between eastern or western philosophy … Madison: The University of Wisconsin. Raphael Lemkin and Eleanor Roosevelt are two very essential people in our history. You are not an individual person anymore, but a servant who serves along with His other servants. Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. Eastern philosophy, on the other hand, has given a lot of thought to war, combat, and conflict. Selves are not physically detectable. Because of his fame as a man of ideals, his counsel was often sought upon by kings. Not the body, certainly: much rather the contrary seems to be true, that the soul holds the body together; for when it departs, the body expires and decomposes. Mastering the self requires strength." Whether it is physical or none physical components it all leads to the idea of coming into fruition with the self. It is bent on teaching those who choose to study Indian Philosophy or achieve the status of Brahman or finally become a Buddhist all the components of the self. And so on ad infinitum. “Philosophy is an attempt to reason clearly and critically about all areas of experience: science, religion, art, politics, and mortality” (What is Philosophy, Para, 1). Eastern Philosophy. Ethics is based on behavior, and … To truly know who you are and where you are going you must truly know thy self. Identify A Decision About Which Reasonable Minds Can Disagree He states: "Soul is an actuality or formulable essence of something that possesses a potentiality of being besouled",[13][14] and also "When mind is set free from its present conditions it appears as just what it is and nothing more: this alone is immortal and eternal". By Jennifer Carter He explains that ignorance and selfishness causes suffering. ... [21][22], Aaron Sloman has proposed that words like self, selves, herself, itself, themselves, myself, etc. In Buddhism the no-self is called anatman. With his mother as an influence, Lemkin mastered ten languages by the age of 14, including French, Spanish, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian. As an eastern, the concept of the "self" stands for something which always exists somewhere out of you. He believed that even the wisest if humans is still ignorant, and this quote show some reflection on that thought process. If there is some other thing which makes it one, this other is rather the soul. Checkpoint: Eastern Religious Philosophy Quotes "[3] The case is the same for the seers of Upanishads, who maintained that the ultimate real knowledge involves an understanding of the essence of the self and the nature of God. On the other hand, in Eastern philosophy, the most well-known conceptions of the self are represented by the views of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and … -- The term philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. For many, faith is determined by upbringing. Philosophy The purpose of philosophy is to try to understand and evaluate our most basics, beliefs, values, and to integrate them into a coherent view of each of us and the world around us (What is Philosophy, 2014). A division of the soul's functions and activities is also found in Plato's tripartite theory. Mastering the self requires strength. Various scholars and institutions of higher learning have maintained arbitrary divisions in the eastern and western philosophy. ", "what transmigrates from one rebirth to another?" [citation needed], Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. We are often quick to judge and comment about other people’s faith without taking into consideration the fact that we cannot be easily convinced out of our own. The most important characteristic of the Eastern world view - one could almost say the essence of it - is the awareness of the unity and mutual interrelation of all things and events, the experience of all phenomena in the world as manifestations of a basic oneness. [2] For Socrates, the goal of philosophy was to "know thyself". She was the wife of former United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt By August of 1945, Lemkin and Roosevelt have both witnessed two world wars. For instance, if a knife had a soul, the act of cutting would be that soul, because 'cutting' is part of the essence of what it is to be a knife. Lemkin grew up in a Jewish family and was one of three children born to Joseph and Bella Lemkin. The western view of the ‘enduring self’ refers to the notion that “you are the same person you were earlier in your life. But if it is divisible, reason again demands, what it is that holds this together? The ego is often associated with mind and the sense of time, which compulsively thinks in order to be assured of its future existence, rather than simply knowing its own self and the present. Ancient eastern philosophy unravels the Tao, Zen and other holistic ways of thinking about the self and the universe. [17], While he was imprisoned in a castle, Avicenna wrote his famous "floating man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality of the soul. This is a powerful statement that underlines the aim of following virtuous acts – bad is something which you do not want for yourself, good actions are the ones which you wish to be returned to you. Philosophy majors and minors alike, if they hope to receive a well-rounded look at the diverse perspectives out there, need to look beyond the more familiar “Western” ideologies. 1). To pretend to know when you do not know is a disease.” Aristotle, following Plato, defined the soul as the core essence of a being, but argued against its having a separate existence. Daniel Dennett has a deflationary theory of the "self". "[7], A theory about self-knowledge describes the concept as the capacity to detect that the sensations, thoughts, mental states, and attitudes as one's own. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. Germano, David Francis. They both laid the groundwork for the now United Nations. Instead, they are a kind of convenient fiction, like a center of gravity, which is convenient as a way of solving physics problems, although they need not correspond to anything tangible — the center of gravity of a hoop is a point in thin air. If it is one, why not call it the soul straightway? Eastern philosophy touches base with three traditions —Indian, Chinese and Persian philosophy—which are just as different from each other as they are from Western philosophy. "For whereas the sensitive faculty is not found apart from the body, the intellect is separate." After completing the readings in this Indian Philosophy course I have come to realize that it is all centered, built upon and around the idea of “the self”. Raphael Lemkin directed his interest in genocide after the Armenian Genocide in Turkey during World War I and after seeing it happen so many times around the world. Hägglund: Death&Meaning; Why Does The World Exist? Oriental philosophy is more concerned with how experience is able to transform the individual, and not with formal tenets and logic, nor there a need to test its postulates. [26] Although Buddhists criticize the immutable ātman of Hinduism, some Buddhist schools problematized the notion of an individual personhood; even among early ones, such as the Pudgala view, it was approached implicitly in questions such as "who is the bearer of the bundle? This cosmological unity is the main point in the journey of life as it goes towards the eternal realities. Philosophy is “the study of ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature and meaning of life, etc…; a particular set of ideas about knowledge, truth, and meaning of life; and a set of ideas about how to do something or how to live” (Philosophy, 2014, para. "[6] Absolute perfection is the consummation of Self-knowledge. Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, says "Knowing others is wisdom. In the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide recognized by Lemkin 19 articles, clarify the guidelines as to... ... [5] "Self-knowledge alone is the means to the highest bliss. The term ‘self’ refers to an individual human being, along with their body, mind, and in some cases, the concept of a ‘soul’. Buddha spoke about the emptiness of the form, in the sense that the form is the physical body, and the human being is just impermanence. 1. According to this doctrine, there is no "self" in the sense of a permanent, integral, autonomous being within an individual existence. "[29], Defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others, Self as an indispensable syntactic construct, not an entity. PHL/215 Ancient Eastern Philosophy On the Ancient Wisdom of Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism & Confucianism. The Main Principles of Eastern Philosophy are: Cosmological Unity Life is a journey towards eternal realities that are beyond the realities that surround us Inner-world dependent Self-Liberation Behavioural Ethics The Main Principles of Western Philosophy are: Feeling oneself as an element of the Divine Life is service (to God, money etc) As we grow up, we gradually establish our own worldview. Studding of philosophy influences our lives in many ways and has many purposes. Both western and eastern philosophy has lots of simliarities too. Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. This variety explains the title - Perspectives on the Self. Therefore, the intentions of another individual can only be inferred from something that emanates from that individual. People constantly tell themselves stories to make sense of their world, and they feature in the stories as a character, and that convenient but fictional character is the self. Eastern Philosophy By Jennifer Carter Eastern philosophy is the philosophies of the eastern continents. Studying philosophy is important because it continues to play an important role in shaping the future of all human existence, Philosophy enhances personal growth, professional opportunities, improves reading skill, critical thinking, communication, and helps in... ...EASTERN AND WESTERN PHILOSOPHY He wanted to know why people had suffered that way they did so he chose to leave his life of luxury, abandon his family and live in the woods as one of them for several years. Mastering others requires force. For exaxmple i have learnt that The question of personal identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the loose cohesion of one's personal experience. 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