Threats: Why is the musk thistle a noxious weed? GALENA, Mo. One thistle plant is capable of producing approximately 9,000 seeds that can remain viable for up to 10 years. They also cost a lot of money and time to control. <]>> 0000004654 00000 n Musk thistle infestations are economically damaging because they compete with crops for light, space, nutrients, and water. 0000003348 00000 n This thistle competes with native plants for nutrients and water. Musk thistle generally is not a problem in cultivated cropland, but may germinate and develop in fallow fields or after wheat is planted in the fall,” said Tim Schnakenberg, agriculture and rural development specialist with University of Missouri Extension. 0000011546 00000 n It is used as medicine. Mowing at full bloom will prevent seed production. 0000009999 00000 n �դqM�|�t�bc�H�qR��D�QP����f�~��g�CU� ��8�Ր�"��U�yJk: ���##���. e���,�!��O��@ږ��s6��i�wO��q�띳(���R. 0000006378 00000 n Musk thistle [PDF file]. These germinate and grow into the rosette stage in the first year. Spraying is an effective way to control thistle outbreaks. Milk thistle is generally considered safe when taken by mouth (1, 45). The two weevils are compatible with each other as biological control agents because they do not compete with each. Musk thistle dies after it sets seed. ���1 �,��xP�ܯ�uP��p+�b�mA1biK ����mŏ7�''�bb���~�g�2��j�ŷ~�ij0�d�Qm-�6�FHi�aB4�D���В/�tٶ�� 0000003858 00000 n “The weevils can work in those areas and that’s why the musk thistle weevil is so viable to us.” ... and in effect, help to turn the table on this plant with a bad reputation. 0000003934 00000 n Musk thistle leaves have a light green midrib, are grayish green on the outer edge, and are relatively free of hair. H��TMo�@���#Tb؏Yv�-���CժH=T9��N\a��n��;�6V�8�6��{�f�P��F�܋l�=���/�R��k ��PWJ�f+TDK�j���M'��0Q D�m�Y�WjǷ� The stem is cottony/hairy. 0000001791 00000 n 0000030276 00000 n 3. The leaves are coarsely lobed and dark green with a light green midrib. Musk thistle generally is not a problem in cultivated cropland, but may germinate and develop in fallow fields or after wheat is planted in the fall,” said Tim Schnakenberg, agriculture and rural development specialist with University of Missouri Extension. Biological Controls: The musk thistle weevil ( Trichosirocalus horridus) was introduced as a biological control to feed on the seeds of the this thistle, limiting its spread. Perhaps one of the most noxious weeds in the home garden, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has a reputation for being impossible to get rid of.We won’t lie to you, Canada thistle control is difficult and requires a significant amount of effort to be successful, but the effort you put into controlling Canada thistle will pay off when you have a garden that is free from this annoying weed. Other herbicides labeled for controlling musk thistles in pastures include Grazon Next HL, Grazon P+D, Chapparal, Surmount and Cimarron Max. Musk thistle dies after it sets seed. Thistles, in general, get a bad rap whenever the word “thistle” is men oned. %%EOF While livestock generally avoid thistles, cattle may actually eat tall thistle early in the season because it is a less spiny variety, Eckberg said. Other uses of the herb: The down of the plant is used to make paper. The flower is generally 1½ to 3 inches in diameter and bright pink in color. Figure 6. 54 0 obj<>stream 0000003095 00000 n Musk thistle plants with flower stalks are more difficult to kill than the rosettes. “Thistles are found primarily in pastures, hay meadows, roadsides and waste areas. The larvae of the rosette weevil feed on the underside of the leaves of the rosette and on the leaves and stems of bolted plants; larvae of the flower head weevil feed in the base of the developing flower of the thistle. Sign up for the Morning Ag Clips below! This probably means in the fall (late October) or spring (mid April). u X��I@��vm�X�V����c���S�\��>��y ����\��.�,�0kGG���J/4�4,K���ld|i��m7�@��-�8��o�. 0000004956 00000 n |�j�Vh�[/�&�l��b���x�ݔ��#��3.�~w���r׵9����ly�ʘ{�4F��z�#c`Åy�@���q{H�h�o��F This allows the thistle to rebound and the weevil numbers to again increase. Musk thistle has sharply spiny stems and leaves. uՖ���y[WS0N:��v�0���ݶ�V��v Milk thistle might lower blood sugar in people who have type 2 diabetes, but more studies are needed to confirm its benefits. infesta on rate of musk thistle brought out the public concern of thistles in Nebraska. Several herbicides are effective and recommended for musk thistle control. © 2020 Morning Ag Clips, LLC. Edible parts of Musk Thistle: Pith of stem - boiled. (aka nodding thistle) is a native of Europe. Subscribing to our services is a three step process. Herbicides are not as effective and there are no weevils or other insects available for biological control. My current favorite is a relatively new herbicide called Milestone. 0000008395 00000 n 0000077182 00000 n 0000006838 00000 n Musk thistle is … “Several herbicides are effective and recommended for musk thistle control. Controlling musk thistle is everyone’s problem. “Research in Kansas indicates one plant per square foot nearly decreases forage production in half. Cattle will not graze forage plants in heavy infestation of this thistle. "�?�/u�m[m�@��A۝�X�G��V�������=���]��y��@Y�N��PƤߠk��u���]s�~$}�%��|��pt�����%�O�ɡ�����锘cS(�߶?ֺ*;���l ����w����8�;j�? trailer 0000027347 00000 n This scenario of fluctuating thistle and weevil populations does not totally eliminate musk thistle. “Producers should mow cleanly and closely and repeat as needed for control and cutting should take place between the first appearance of pink and the first appearance of brown on the pappus of the earliest head,” said Schnakenberg. Musk thistle may retard natural secondary succession processes. Plumeless Thistles are about one half the size and have solitary flowers at the end of branches. Control. Thistles can be … Research on milk thistle use for specific conditions shows: Diabetes. It invades many types of habitats but is a serious threat to pastures as it is unpalatable to livestock. Musk thistle is one of 12 state-wide noxious weeds in Kansas infesting over 700,000 acres. 19 36 Dense infestations of musk thistle compete strongly with grass or other desirable plants for water, light and nutrients. A musk thistle plant may produce from one to over 100 heads depending on soil and growing conditions. 0000005554 00000 n Mechanical methods include mowing and hand cutting. Figure 2. Direct losses are difficult to quantify due to lack of long-term monitoring programs and data. Pasture-land is particularly vulnerable because the drainage is good, and livestock will avoid thistle due to its spiny leaves and stems. Musk, purple, bull and spiny thistles are all eyesores but they also hinder grazing, compete for available moisture and will continue to multiply if left alone. 0000002901 00000 n 0000010815 00000 n Schnakenberg says you can use 2,4-D but you will get better thistle control by using a combination of 2,4-D and dicamba (Banvel). Overview Information Scotch thistle is a plant. 0000022376 00000 n It was first recorded in the United States in 1852 at Harrisburg, PA. xref “You can also dig the root at least two inches below ground level and remove all soil from the roots. Milk thistle, in combination with other supplements, might improve the symptoms of indigestion. x�b```f``�``e`�� Ȁ �@16����� Ez��A`���*�B�3R�q�Tp�s�&�֬��� ��":`|�1@�������X,���Ϩ�,"xC�@ȍi�Ǹ�a�@�ņ^��i�M�2�7b�lg�)2���,�-�*}v2d�0�`a� scn �fbk b`����� �.� Thistles can be either annuals or biennials, but most are biennials. 0000003129 00000 n The large, terminal flower heads are why it is also called “nodding thistle” Musk thistle, also called nodding thistle, is a tap-rooted biennial that reproduces by wind-dispersed seeds. A single plant can produce up to 10,000 good quality seeds. If you pick heads that are beyond the bud stage you should burn them in a controlled fashion.”. 0000003604 00000 n Loss in income also results from lower quality hay due to contamination by this noxious weed,” said Schnakenberg. The younger the rosette, the more susceptible it is to the herbicide. Musk thistle is continuous throughout the United States. 0000001016 00000 n The other fall in between. 0000073256 00000 n If the weevil is not present then contact your county weed board for assistance. The colorful flowers are usually deep rose to violet or purple. The seed of all species of … 0000001381 00000 n 0000014215 00000 n Such natural enemies include the musk thistle rosette weevil, the musk thistle flower head weevil and a musk thistle rust fungus. Musk thistle has been reported in nearly every county in Kansas and is found primarily in pastures, rangeland, hay meadows, alfalfa, fallow, roadsides, and waste areas. 0000007571 00000 n
The other weevil is the rosette weevil, which kills smaller musk thistles in the rosette growth stage. A pleasant taste, it is eaten like asparagus. Musk thistle’s tolerance to most herbicides increases after it bolts. ECOLOGICAL THREAT Because musk thistle is unpalatable to wildlife and livestock, selective grazing leads to severe degradation of native meadows and grasslands as wildlife focus their foraging on native plants, giving musk thistle a competitive advantage. Baudoin, A. Rhinocyllus conicus. Why Is It a Noxious Weed? �C��e��E� 19 0 obj <> endobj 0000000016 00000 n Plumeless thistle (left) and musk thistle (right) in early bloom. startxref endstream endobj 20 0 obj<> endobj 21 0 obj<> endobj 22 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 23 0 obj<> endobj 24 0 obj<> endobj 25 0 obj<> endobj 26 0 obj[/ICCBased 45 0 R] endobj 27 0 obj<> endobj 28 0 obj<> endobj 29 0 obj<> endobj 30 0 obj<> endobj 31 0 obj<>stream Schnakenberg says mowing needs to be done with a rotary mower before the first appearance of pink on the flowers. Musk thistle flower heads are “powder puff” in shape, in contrast to “saving brush” flower heads of some other thistles. Rosettes need to be treated when they are actively growing and not under drought stress. Livestock will not graze in areas heavily infested with must thistle, thus decreasing available pasture. But studies on heart benefits only have been done in people with diabetes. Liver disease. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) infestation in Clackamas County. Any herbicide you use will work if you spray soon enough this spring. Another control is biological. Musk Thistle flowers are the biggest with 1 1/2 to 3 inch wide flowers with pinecone-like bracts below. D�=��K���V����e��S/�a�!r�_����jI�i�Ǡ�!0���0����ق7h�����|�:X�1DC���F����R‹�KX�M1���&�fD�%����)ħ{M���n�M)��k00���2H�M��0)��Lʶ�Z��AM�փC�w�8�._� ��3���Y,{���¹�գ�������5��]Q=�£"�q �y��^a��l�9. 0000073014 00000 n Musk thistle, nodding thistle. 1983. 0000002396 00000 n The leaves are dark green, coarsely bipinnately lobed, with a smooth, waxy surface and sharp yellow-brown to whitish spines at the tips of the lobes. On the other hand, non-native thistles can overrun an area and displace native plants, reduce agricultural yield, and create problems for grazing animals when they infest a field or pasture. The head has very characteristic brown bracts that resemble a pine cone (Figure 40). Leaves of musk thistle (left) and plumeless thistle (right). All Rights Reserved. Said to be delicious. Specific natural enemies of musk thistle can aid in regulating the spread of this weed. Note the nodding heads of musk thistle. (aka nodding thistle) is a native of Europe. They remain in the rosette stage over the winter and then bloom and produce seeds the next growing season. In fact, in studies where high doses were used for long periods, only about 1% of people experienced side effects ( 1 ). Forage production thus reduces, and both humans and animals suffer the effects of this. Musk thistles reduce forage production and use. Musk thistle often grows in excess of 6 feet tall and has very large flower heads that tend to droop (Figure 39). Its large, nodding flower heads are distinctive and appear from June to August. endstream endobj 32 0 obj<> endobj 33 0 obj<> endobj 34 0 obj<>stream The first documented report of musk thistle in Kansas was from a collection made in Washington County in 1932. Because musk thistle is unpalatable to wildlife and livestock, selective grazing leads to severe degradation of native meadows and grasslands as grazing animals focus their foraging on other plants, giving musk thistle a competitive advantage. 0000059952 00000 n Although musk thistle is infrequently found in dense forests, it can impact natural areas by colonizing areas of natural disturbance such as land slides or areas of frequent flooding. Carduus, pp. Musk thistle is … ��!� Read: Producers Have Several Options For Spring Musk Thistle Control. (FreeUsePhotos via Flickr), 2021 Syngenta Crop Challenge in Analytics prize committee named, Industry feedyard audit tool now available, Cotton Research and Promotion Act amendments to continue, USDA announces deregulation of corn variety, USDA Quarterly Hogs and Pigs Report Webinar: Dec. 23rd, Extend the grazing season to add value to cull cows. For more information, contact any of these MU Extension agronomy specialists in southwest Missouri: Tim Schnakenberg in Stone County, (417) 357-6812; Jill Scheidt in Barton County, (417) 682-3579 and Sarah Kenyon in Howell County, (417) 256-2391. — A wide variety of thistles can be seen everywhere this summer and appear to be in abundant supply. Spray herbicides soon, while your musk thistle is still in the rosette form, and few plants will send up flowering stalks for hand digging later. Leaves have an alternate arrangement on the stem and are smooth and hairless on both sides. 0000001301 00000 n As a population of thistle is diminished by the weevils, weevil numbers decline. However, all thistles are not bad for the environment or agriculture. 0000006605 00000 n 0000005986 00000 n It invades pastures and fields, crowding out desirable forage plants. Musk thistles usually start flowering in spring and can bloom from seven to nine weeks. The dried flowers are used as a curdling agent for plant milks etc. H����n�0��z Inspect thistle heads in your area for signs of the weevil. In so doing, it ends up altering the existing conditions, making it hard for the native species to survive. It is larger and will be more difficult to control than musk thistle. The Musk thistle is a common species of chalky soils and can be found on rough grassland, roadside verges, waste ground and scrub. The plants develop a rosette, with large leaves 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) long. It was first recorded in the United States in 1852 at Harrisburg, PA. %PDF-1.4 %���� Musk, purple, bull and spiny thistles are all eyesores but they also hinder grazing, compete for available moisture and will continue to multiply if left alone. The first documented report of musk thistle in Kansas was from a collection made in Washington County inI 1932. Invasive musk thistle, for example, does well on overgrazed range and can slow regrowth of pasture grasses, according to the Xerces guide. 0 Always be sure to read and follow label instructions, and treat at the proper time. This results in lower income from grazing areas. University of Arkansas research shows, 80 percent of seeds from a thistle are deposited within 55 yards of the original plant. In pastures, its spiny foliage renders it unsuitable for livestock. Indigestion (dyspepsia). — Tim Schnakenberg, University of Missouri Extension, Pig farmers to attend Latin American showcase. Musk thistle has very large bracts beneath flowers that are armed with sharp spines and shoots beneath flowers are almost devoid of leaves. It spends approximately 90 percent of its life cycle in a vegetative growth stage. 0000009166 00000 n Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2002) Date of U.S. Introduction: First recorded in 1852 (Zouhar 2002) Means of Introduction: Accidental, possibly through ballast water (Zouhar 2002) Impact: Crowds out native species and forage for livestock (Zouhar 2002) 0000004496 00000 n It hinders stream bank access, and is problematic in grain fields. "����r�����Q8 0000001560 00000 n Would you like to keep up with the latest local and national agriculture news, every business day? By lowering LDL "bad" cholesterol levels, milk thistle may lower the chance of developing heart disease. Another very effective herbicide is Tordon 22K. Once established it spreads rapidly because of the large number of seeds produced. 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